Long before dukes and earls rode in fancy carriages through London's Hyde Park,
and long before the Norman-French claimed victory at Hastings, Romans
established the city of Londinium.
Julius Caesar first visited Britain in 55 B.C., but it wasn't until A.D. 43 that
Emperor Claudius decided the Thames was a favorable shipping route from the
North Sea and established a town in the area just east of present day Westminster.
The area extends roughly from east of Waterloo Bridge to Tower Bridge and north
from the Thames toward the Museum of London. If walking, there are stone Dragon
monuments that mark the boundaries of the Old City.
Fremantleboy, Drallim (translation) [CC BY 2.5
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5)], via Wikimedia Commons
Of course, local Celtic tribes did not welcome the Roman invasion any more than
Native Americans did white settlers. Inceni Queen Boudicca of East Anglia led a
revolt against the Romans and destroyed their cities of Camulodunum
(Colchester), Verulamium (St. Albans) and Londinium.
Perhaps she was the first, true Women's Libber! In any case, she was indeed a
Warrior Woman whom men followed into war. A statue of her driving her chariot
stands at the corner of today's Westminster Bridge and Victoria's Embankment,
right across from Parliament.
Staff Sergeant Nick McNaughton
The Romans, however, were not known for accepting defeat. They rebuilt
Londinium, including a stone wall to protect from future attacks. London Wall
(between Bishopsgate and Aldersgate marks where the Roman wall once stood.
Portions of it can also be seen on the grounds of the Tower of London as well as
beneath St. Brides Church on Fleet Street and at the Museum of London.
By John Winfield,
CC BY-SA 2.0,
A gladiatorial ampi-theatre was built on the North Bank of the Thames off
Gresham Street where the Guildhall now stands. A Forum was added near
present-day Cornhill and Gracechurch Streets. Close to Cheapside and Queen
Street, a Roman-style bathhouse with hypocausts provided the traditional
three-chamber method of bathing—soaking in the caldarium (hot, steamy
water), then into the tepidarium (tepid temperature) and dipping into
the frigidarium (very cold water) for the finish.
A number of temples to Roman gods and goddesses were also erected through the
first two centuries. When Christianity emerged in the early 4th
century, Romans did in Britain what they did across the Continent…they simply
replaced Pagan holidays with Christian ones. The Celtic Imbolc (February 1)
became Candlemas, spring Beltane became Easter, the Summer Solstice of Litha
became St. John's Day, autumn Samhain became All Hallows Eve, and the Winter
Solstice festival of Yule became Christmas (celebrating the Christ's Mass).
The Romans abruptly abandoned Britain in the early 5th century to
return to the Continent and defend their empire from Eastern invaders, but many
remnants of their culture remains, if one knows where to look.
Another point of interest within the old Roman walls is the circular Temple
Church built by the Templars in 1185. Not only is it still standing, but it's in
regular use for Sunday services and special events.
But Temple Church—and the Templars—are fodder for another day.
Alexander Ashley has decided women of the ton are more interested in status
than love. His game is seduction and nothing more. His feelings regarding
aristocratic ladies leads to an outlandish idea—prove a servant can be taught to
be as ladylike as those born to it. And the beautiful Inis Fitzgerald might be
just the woman for his plan.
Inis Fitzgerald escaped her home in Dublin to avoid an arranged marriage and
is now working for a rakishly handsome lord who seems to enjoy bucking
convention as much as she does. She plays along with his little game, pretending
she knows nothing about being a lady. It doesn't take long before Alex discovers
Inis is every bit as much of an aristocrat as the women he's sworn only to
seduce and not love…
[Entangled Amara, On Sale: July 23, 2018, e-Book,
An avid reader of anything medieval, Cynthia Breeding has taught the
traditional Arthurian legends to high school sophomores for fifteen years. She
owns more than three hundred books, fictional and non-fictional, on the subject.
More information on Arthur, Gwenhwyfar and Lancelot can be found on the
Historical Account link. In addition, she has won numerous awards including the
Holt Medallion, Beacon Contest, Barclay Gold, More Than Magic and Ancient City
Romance Authors. Cynthia lives on the bay with her Bichon Frise and enjoys
sailing and riding on the beach.
No comments posted.